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第一期3欧盟排放交易计划新的监测和报告指南

排放交易计划

欧盟公司必须监控和报告依据欧盟排放交易计划(ETS)的温室气体排放量。 在2013相3开始并报告新准则已经发展到建立在以前的两个阶段。 克里斯季莫普洛斯从国家物理实验室(NPL)已审阅新的指引。 他解释当前的系统和什么样的变化将意味着什么。

该系统需要二氧化碳在欧盟范围内发射器,以监测他们的排放量,并每年进行报告。 每年他们必须投降津贴(支付金额等于一吨CO2的),考虑到他们的实际排放量。

The installations get the trading credits from NAPS (national allocation plans) which are part of each country”s government. Besides receiving this initial allocation, an operator may purchase EU and international trading credits, either from other organisations or from carbon offset projects. Equally, organisations that reduce carbon emissions can sell their credits. NAPs will be replaced by a single EU-wide cap for Phase 3 of the scheme.

该系统建立在欧洲的总排放量上限,并提供经济诱因,鼓励企业以减少废气排放。 目标是,通过2020津贴的可用数量将21%以下2005水平。

测量的重要性
The ETS currently covers more than 11,000 installations in the energy and industrial sectors, which are collectively responsible for close to half of the EU”s CO2 emissions and 40% of its greenhouse gas emissions. This includes over 850 organisations in the UK.

关键项目的成功是确保公司能够准确地向有关当局报告他们的排放量。 欧盟已经公布了一套监测和报告指南(MRG),以确保这些测量和报告准确。

当前MRG限定用于测量排放量的方法。 企业必须通过一个基础的计算方法或通过直接测量监测排放量。 计算涉及乘活动数据(油耗)由排放因子(燃料的碳含量)由氧化因子(碳氧化成CO2之比)。 直接测量需要CO2内容烟囱排放现场通过连续排放监测系统(CEMS)的分析。

Companies fall into three categories, A, B or C, depending on their emissions – the higher the emissions, the more stringent the reporting requirements. The category and the type of process or fuel, will in turn assign a specific tier to the company as a whole, or to a specific emission source within it. Different tiers have different requirements in regards to the methods used to determine CO2 emissions. For example lower tiers can use a default value for fuel emission factor, but higher tiers must send samples for analysis.

一旦分配层,企业必须提交一份计划,指定其方法衡量和报告排放,包括在他们的方法中的任何不确定性。

时间来更新要求
ETS制定了几年的目标。 从2008开始的ETS第二阶段将于今年结束,第三阶段将在2013开始。 随着我们进入一个新的时期,已经进行了磋商,以确定如何改善下一个交易时期的报告。

新准则提出了一些这在目前的指导方针解决不足之处不大,但显著的变化。

One issue that has been addressed, is the more clear and concise definition of clauses within the guidelines which allow companies to use lower tiers if the measures needed to adhere to their specified ones are deemed ‘technically not feasible or would incur unreasonable costs’. The new MRG requires operators to prove by means of calculation, that the costs outweigh the benefits. The benefit will be calculated by multiplying an improvement factor with a reference price of 20 euro per allowance. The improvement factor will be dependent on average annual emissions and the difference between uncertainty achieved by the operator and the uncertainty threshold of the tier they should be adhering to.

在MRG的当前版本需要选择直接测量公司,以确定其排放到主管机关获得批准,并证明直接测量将实现更高的精确度。 新指引将两种方法在更平等的基础上认识到增加信心,CEMS和与之相关的质量保证程序。 运营商现在就可以,只要他们能够坚持的不确定性和等级要求使用直接测量,减少了对希望使用这种方法的公司的障碍。

对于那些使用的计算方法,测量系统对油耗的不确定性评估必须进行由运营商和新的指导方针将提供更详细的有关校准和不确定性要求。 计量设备的供应商将提供对系统中的不确定性,但因素如校准,维修,操作条件和环境条件可进一步影响的不确定性。 新MRG需要运营商通过一个保守的调节因子,至少每年一次,每个校准后乘以校准结果。 这是考虑到不确定性的使用期间的效果。 还需要在关于如何计量装置进行操作的任何额外的不确定性来源,以列入预算的不确定性。

新准则还引入对运营商的要求,检讨方法,在指定的时间间隔,以确定哪些措施可以采取提高他们的方法。 正在使用较低层次高于指引规定运营商应在坚持自己需要的层采取措施的报告。 对于A类的时间间隔为四年,B类两年,C类一年。

监测计划将是MRG的阶段3的核心要素,并了解其需求和需要提交的文件,包括了新的要求,将是负责排放监测运营至关重要。

对指引作出检讨和配套的测量专长

The review of the new guidelines was carried out as part of an ongoing NPL project called Metrology for Emissions Trading. This draws on NPL’s expertise in emissions monitoring, and falls under the remit of the recently launched Centre for Carbon Measurement at NPL, which is developing the technology and expertise to accurately and practically monitor carbon emissions in a wide range of environments. The Centre is supported by the National Measurement System and is a key component of the National Measurement Strategy.

The ETS project involves working closely with industry to analyse methods for monitoring, provide uncertainty guidance, and exploring difficulties in meeting requirements. This experience and expertise feeds into projects such as the development of guidelines which meet the needs for emissions reductions whilst reflecting the realities of business. It also supports the development of new techniques and services to help the industry meet monitoring guidelines as cost-effective and accurately as possible – helping both government and business meet emissions reductions targets.

不良贷款是供有关一般ETS和碳计量问题的建议和指导,并邀请来自工业经营者从他们的监测下的ETS至今的温室气体排放量的经验制订的任何反馈。

Those wishing to learn more about NPL’s work in these areas should contact Jane Burston ([EMAIL PROTECTED])或克里斯季莫普洛斯([EMAIL PROTECTED]).

国家物理实验室,Teddington,密德萨斯也可以联系,电话:0208 977 3222。

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